Drizzle with Supabase Database

This tutorial demonstrates how to use Drizzle ORM with Supabase Database. Every Supabase project comes with a full Postgres database.

This guide assumes familiarity with:
  • You should have installed Drizzle ORM and Drizzle kit. You can do this by running the following command:
npm
yarn
pnpm
bun
npm i drizzle-orm
npm i -D drizzle-kit
  • You should have installed dotenv package for managing environment variables. Read more about this package here.
  • You should have the latest version of Supabase CLI installed. (Only if you want to use the CLI for migrations).

Check Supabase documentation to learn how to connect to database with Drizzle ORM.

Setup Supabase and Drizzle ORM

Create a new Supabase project

You can create new Supabase project in the dashboard or by following this link.

Setup connection string variable

Navigate to Database Settings and copy the URI from the Connection String section. Make sure to use connection pooling. Remember to replace the password placeholder with your actual database password.

Add DATABASE_URL variable to your .env file:

DATABASE_URL=<CONNECTION_STRING>

Read more about Connection Pooler and pooling modes in the documentation.

Connect Drizzle ORM to your database

Create a db.ts file in the src/db directory and set up your database configuration:

src/db/db.ts
import 'dotenv/config';
import { drizzle } from 'drizzle-orm/postgres-js';
import postgres from 'postgres';

const client = postgres(process.env.DATABASE_URL!);
export const db = drizzle(client);

Create tables

Create a schema.ts file in the src/db directory and declare your tables:

src/db/schema.ts
import { integer, pgTable, serial, text, timestamp } from 'drizzle-orm/pg-core';

export const usersTable = pgTable('users_table', {
  id: serial('id').primaryKey(),
  name: text('name').notNull(),
  age: integer('age').notNull(),
  email: text('email').notNull().unique(),
});

export const postsTable = pgTable('posts_table', {
  id: serial('id').primaryKey(),
  title: text('title').notNull(),
  content: text('content').notNull(),
  userId: integer('user_id')
    .notNull()
    .references(() => usersTable.id, { onDelete: 'cascade' }),
  createdAt: timestamp('created_at').notNull().defaultNow(),
  updatedAt: timestamp('updated_at')
    .notNull()
    .$onUpdate(() => new Date()),
});

export type InsertUser = typeof usersTable.$inferInsert;
export type SelectUser = typeof usersTable.$inferSelect;

export type InsertPost = typeof postsTable.$inferInsert;
export type SelectPost = typeof postsTable.$inferSelect;

Setup Drizzle config file

Drizzle config - a configuration file that is used by Drizzle Kit and contains all the information about your database connection, migration folder and schema files.

Create a drizzle.config.ts file in the root of your project and add the following content:

drizzle.config.ts
import 'dotenv/config';
import { defineConfig } from 'drizzle-kit';

export default defineConfig({
  schema: './src/db/schema.ts',
  out: './supabase/migrations',
  dialect: 'postgresql',
  dbCredentials: {
    url: process.env.DATABASE_URL!,
  },
});

Applying changes to the database

You can generate migrations using drizzle-kit generate command and then run them using the drizzle-kit migrate command.

Generate migrations:

npx drizzle-kit generate

These migrations are stored in the supabase/migrations directory, as specified in your drizzle.config.ts. This directory will contain the SQL files necessary to update your database schema and a meta folder for storing snapshots of the schema at different migration stages.

Example of a generated migration:

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS "posts_table" (
  "id" serial PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
  "title" text NOT NULL,
  "content" text NOT NULL,
  "user_id" integer NOT NULL,
  "created_at" timestamp DEFAULT now() NOT NULL,
  "updated_at" timestamp NOT NULL
);
--> statement-breakpoint
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS "users_table" (
  "id" serial PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
  "name" text NOT NULL,
  "age" integer NOT NULL,
  "email" text NOT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT "users_table_email_unique" UNIQUE("email")
);
--> statement-breakpoint
DO $$ BEGIN
 ALTER TABLE "posts_table" ADD CONSTRAINT "posts_table_user_id_users_table_id_fk" FOREIGN KEY ("user_id") REFERENCES "users_table"("id") ON DELETE cascade ON UPDATE no action;
EXCEPTION
 WHEN duplicate_object THEN null;
END $$;

Run migrations:

npx drizzle-kit migrate

Learn more about migration process. You can also apply migtations using Supabase CLI:

To apply migrations using the Supabase CLI, initialize local Supabase project, link it to your remote project and push changes to the database:

supabase init
supabase link
supabase db push

Alternatively, you can push changes directly to the database using Drizzle kit push command:

npx drizzle-kit push
💡
Push command is good for situations where you need to quickly test new schema designs or changes in a local development environment, allowing for fast iterations without the overhead of managing migration files.

Basic file structure

This is the basic file structure of the project. In the src/db directory, we have database-related files including connection in db.ts and schema definitions in schema.ts.

📦 <project root>
 ├ 📂 src
 │   ├ 📂 db
 │   │  ├ 📜 db.ts
 │   │  └ 📜 schema.ts
 │   └ 📜 index.ts
 ├ 📂 supabase
 │   ├ 📂 migrations
 │   │  ├ 📂 meta
 │   │  │  ├ 📜 _journal.json
 │   │  │  └ 📜 0000_snapshot.json
 │   │  └ 📜 0000_watery_spencer_smythe.sql
 │   └ 📜 config.toml
 ├ 📜 drizzle.config.ts
 ├ 📜 package.json
 └ 📜 tsconfig.json

Query examples

For instance, we create src/db/queries.ts file with the following queries.

Insert data

Read more about insert query in the documentation.

src/db/queries.ts
import { db } from './db';
import { InsertUser, usersTable } from './schema';

export async function createUser(data: InsertUser) {
  await db.insert(usersTable).values(data);
}

Select data

Read more about select query in the documentation.

src/db/queries.ts
import { asc, between, count, eq, getTableColumns, sql } from 'drizzle-orm';
import { db } from './db';
import { InsertUser, SelectUser, postsTable, usersTable } from './schema';

export async function getUserById(id: SelectUser['id']): Promise<
  Array<{
    id: number;
    name: string;
    age: number;
    email: string;
  }>
> {
  return db.select().from(usersTable).where(eq(usersTable.id, id));
}

export async function getUsersWithPostsCount(
  page = 1,
  pageSize = 5,
): Promise<
  Array<{
    postsCount: number;
    id: number;
    name: string;
    age: number;
    email: string;
  }>
> {
  return db
    .select({
      ...getTableColumns(usersTable),
      postsCount: count(postsTable.id),
    })
    .from(usersTable)
    .leftJoin(postsTable, eq(usersTable.id, postsTable.userId))
    .groupBy(usersTable.id)
    .orderBy(asc(usersTable.id))
    .limit(pageSize)
    .offset((page - 1) * pageSize);
}

export async function getPostsForLast24Hours(
  page = 1,
  pageSize = 5,
): Promise<
  Array<{
    id: number;
    title: string;
  }>
> {
  return db
    .select({
      id: postsTable.id,
      title: postsTable.title,
    })
    .from(postsTable)
    .where(between(postsTable.createdAt, sql`now() - interval '1 day'`, sql`now()`))
    .orderBy(asc(postsTable.title), asc(postsTable.id))
    .limit(pageSize)
    .offset((page - 1) * pageSize);
}

Alternatively, you can use relational query syntax.

Update data

Read more about update query in the documentation.

src/db/queries.ts
// imports

export async function updatePost(id: SelectPost['id'], data: Partial<Omit<SelectPost, 'id'>>) {
  await db.update(postsTable).set(data).where(eq(postsTable.id, id));
}

Delete data

Read more about delete query in the documentation.

src/db/queries.ts
// imports

export async function deleteUser(id: SelectUser['id']) {
  await db.delete(usersTable).where(eq(usersTable.id, id));
}