Drizzle Kit

Our most fundamental design principles of Drizzle ORM is to always stay explicit, provide opt-in solutions and never interfere. Our migrations toolkit is not an exception.

npm
yarn
pnpm
bun
npm i -D drizzle-kit

Overview

Drizzle Kit — is a CLI companion for automatic SQL migrations generation and rapid prototyping.

Conceptually it’s very simple, you just declare a Drizzle ORM TypeScript schema and generate an SQL migration from it.

You can then change the original schema and Drizzle Kit will generate new migrations, that way you can have DDL source of truth in one type-safe place and under version control.

Drizzle Kit lets you split your schema in different files and even have multiple schemas for different databases in one project. You can rapidly prototype database schema and push it directly to the database.

Last but not least — you can pull the schema from an existing database in a matter of seconds ⚡️

Migration files

Migrations history is stored in .sql files in the migrations folder

📦 <project root>
 ├ ...
 ├ 📂 drizzle
 │ ├ 📂 _meta
 │ ├ 📜 0000_premium_mister_fear.sql
 │ ├ 📜 0001_absurd_toad.sql
 │ ├ 📜 0002_adorable_human_torch.sql
 │ └ 📜 0003_boring_silver_sable.sql
 ├ ...
 ├ 📂 src
 ├ 📜 package.json
 └ ...

Each SQL migration file contains statements which you apply to the database through. Drizzle ORM migration package or any other way suitable for your business case or personal preference.

0000_premium_mister_fear.sql
schema.ts
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS "user" (
  "id" serial,
  "name" text,
  "email" text,
  "password" text,
  "role" text,
  "created_at" timestamp,
  "updated_at" timestamp
);
export const user = pgTable("user", {
  id: serial("id"),
  name: text("name"),
  email: text("email"),
  password: text("password"),
  role: text("role").$type<"admin" | "customer">(),
  createdAt: timestamp("created_at"),
  updatedAt: timestamp("updated_at"),
});

Schema updates

Whenever you apply changes to the schema you just rerun $ drizzle-kit generate and it will generate SQL migration for you completely automatically in most of the cases.

0001_absurd_toad.sql
schema.ts
ALTER TABLE "user" ADD COLUMN "is_verified" boolean;
export const user = pgTable("user", {
  id: serial("id"),
  name: text("name"),
  email: text("email"),
  password: text("password"),
  isVerified: boolean("is_verified"),
  role: text("role").$type<"admin" | "customer">(),
  createdAt: timestamp("created_at"),
  updatedAt: timestamp("updated_at"),
});

Running migrations

We’re unopinionated on how you should run your migrations, you can run them manually using SQL generated files, using external tools, etc. or use Drizzle Kit or Drizzle ORM.

Using Drizzle Kit

You can use the native migrate CLI command drizzle-kit migrate. It will gather all the needed information from the drizzle.config.ts file to run migrations.

You can specify custom schema and migration table names in drizzle.config.ts . For more information, please check the migrate documentation.

drizzle-kit migrate

Using Drizzle ORM

We also provide you a useful way to run generated migrations with migrate function which we implement for each driver and dialect specifically.

Drizzle will automatically keep track of applied migrations in your database.

ℹ️

drizzle and migrate imports depend on the database driver you’re using.

PostgreSQL
MySQL
SQLite
import { drizzle } from "drizzle-orm/postgres-js";
import { migrate } from "drizzle-orm/postgres-js/migrator";
import postgres from "postgres";

const sql = postgres("...", { max: 1 })
const db = drizzle(sql);

await migrate(db, { migrationsFolder: "drizzle" });

await sql.end();
import { drizzle } from "drizzle-orm/mysql2";
import { migrate } from "drizzle-orm/mysql2/migrator";
import { createConnection } from "mysql2";

const connection = createConnection("...")
const db = drizzle(connection);

await migrate(db, { migrationsFolder: "drizzle" });

await connection.end();
import { drizzle } from "drizzle-orm/better-sqlite3";
import { migrate } from "drizzle-orm/better-sqlite3/migrator";
import Database from "better-sqlite3";

const betterSqlite = new Database(":memory:");
const db = drizzle(betterSqlite);

migrate(db, { migrationsFolder: "drizzle" });

betterSqlite.close()

Configuration

Drizzle Kit lets you declare configurations in TypeScript, JavaScript or JSON configuration files.

You can have autocomplete experience and a very convenient environment variables flow!

drizzle.config.ts
drizzle.config.js
drizzle.config.json
import { defineConfig } from 'drizzle-kit'

export default defineConfig({
 schema: "./schema.ts",
  dialect: 'postgresql',
  dbCredentials: {
    url: process.env.DB_URL,
  },
  verbose: true,
  strict: true,
})
/** @type { import("drizzle-kit").Config } */
export default {
  schema: "./schema.ts",
  dialect: 'postgresql',
  dbCredentials: {
    url: process.env.DB_URL,
  }
};
{
  "dialect": "postgresql",
  "out": "./migrations-folder",
  "schema": "./src/db",
  "breakpoints": false
}

For list of all configuration params — see here.

Prototyping with db push

Drizzle Kit lets you alter you database schema and rapidly move forward with a db push command.

That’s very handy when you have remote databases like Neon, Planetscale or Turso.

Overview

If you want to iterate quickly during local development or if your project doesn’t require migration files, Drizzle offers a useful command called drizzle-kit push.

When do you need to use the ‘push’ command?

  1. During the prototyping and experimentation phase of your schema on a local environment.
  2. When you are utilizing an external provider that manages migrations and schema changes for you (e.g., PlanetScale).
  3. If you are comfortable modifying the database schema before your code changes can be deployed.

How it works?

When you run the command drizzle-kit push drizzle executes the following steps:

  1. It retrieves your schema from the database and converts it to the “drizzle-schema” format.
  2. The command reads all your schema files containing drizzle tables and converts them to the “drizzle-schema” format as well.
  3. Drizzle then compares the two schemas and generates a set of statements that need to be executed against your database. These statements ensure that the database is synchronized with the schemas defined in your code.
$ drizzle-kit push

For extended push examples see here.

Introspecting with db pull

Drizzle Kit lets you pull DDL from existing database and prints a TypeScript schema file completely automatically.

$ drizzle-kit introspect
📦 <project root>
 ├ ...
 ├ 📂 drizzle
 │ ├ 📂 _meta
 │ ├ 📜 0000_premium_mister_fear.sql
 │ └ 📜 schema.ts
 ├ ...
 ├ 📂 src
 ├ 📜 package.json
 └ ...
 export const user = pgTable("user", {
    id: serial("id"),
    name: text("name"),
    email: text("email"),
    password: text("password"),
    role: text("role").$type<"admin" | "customer">(),
    createdAt: timestamp("created_at"),
    updatedAt: timestamp("updated_at"),
  });

For extended introspect examples — see here.

Drizzle Studio

Drizzle Kit comes with bundled Drizzle Studio database browser and lets you launch it locally with one command.

Drizzle Studio

Studio requires drizzle config file with schema and dbCredentials provided.

drizzle-kit studio

drizzle-kit studio --port 3000 ## custom port
drizzle-kit studio --host 0.0.0.0 ## custom host for studio server
drizzle-kit studio --verbose   ## log all sql statements
🖥 Drizzle Studio Demo 🖥 Open Drizzle Studio